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Samuel Musa Dachi Impact of Air pollution causes the development of childhood obesity pneumonia Lifetime effects Children have their whole lives ahead of them, so anything that has irreversible impacts on their development is especially bur￾densome. The cell layer on the inside of the respiratory tract is particularly permeable during childhood.77 This makes them very vulnerable to intrusions or infections from air pollution. Further￾more, the effects might not become apparent until later in life – potentially decades later.78 The lifetime effects from air pollution might also be felt through its impact on cognitive development (as illustrated above). Studies have also shown that air pollution can have negative effects on cognitive development and coordination – which can have lifelong implications in terms of schooling outcomes and future careers.79,80 Air pollution can lead to respiratory infections that can be reoccurring and/or chronic. These conditions can cause more rapid deterioration of lung capacity.81,82 Where children are exposed to high levels of air pollution, as adults they can be more vulnerable to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease,83 cardiovascular disease and lung cancer.84 The combination of respiratory, cardiovascular, cognitive, morbidity and reproductive health effects of air pollution have biological as well as social and economic effects that last a lifetime. These include health conditions, school attendance, school performance, health costs and productivity, which affect income, poverty and inequities. Air pollution, through its massive and cumulative impact on the overall health and well-being of children and parents, can perpetuate intergenerational cycles of inequity. Effect of smoke-free legislation on childhood asthma A meta-analysis of 20 studies found a significant relationship between exposure to secondhand smoke and development of childhood asthma.85 A number of studies also found the impact of smoke-free legislation on the reduction of childhood asthma. The bans have been associated with at least a 10 per cent reduction in hospital visits for childhood asthma. The review suggested that protection from secondhand smoke in early life prevents instances of asthma and other associated diseases in later life.86 According to researchers, cases of childhood asthma declined because a ban on smoking in public places initiated a self-imposed ban on smoking at home, reducing children’s exposure to tobacco smoke both inside and outside the home 0 12